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font-family: 宋体;">一、证a及当事h陈述的证据效?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 16px;">在英法pdӞ有谚云“无证hx诉讼”,可见证h证言的地位的重要性。我国现行民诉法它列ؓ法定证据U类之一Q从理论上说Q似乎不再值得讨论Q而新q的司法解释Q更q一步规定,证h必须出庭作证Q其证言要经双方质证Q才可认定其证据效力。这些规定,以理Z是无懈可ȝQ也无需作进一步的讨论。然而,ZҎ国民众的素质的不信QQ现行司法实践中Q我们对证h证言的证据效力,是怎样来权衡取舍的呢?</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">事实上,我们很少能理性地对待它,很多时候,审判者均会很主观地排斥它Q甚x需控辩双方的质询、认证,法官往往׃职权它们排除在有效证据之外。法官们g只相信书证的效力Q总认a的主观成份太多,虚假的盖然性太大,无法与书证相提ƈ论。往往在某些以证h证言Z要证据的案例中,会很随意C出“证据不”的判决?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">在刑事诉g却不同,证h证言往往能发挥重大的证据效力Q审判者很怀疑国民的素质Q当Ӟ刑法中对作伪证的惩罚力度也大Q此U信任,是徏立在刑法的威慑之上。这样一来,同一个证人在刑事诉讼中的证言可能被采信,而在民事诉讼中的证言却很可能不被采信。这是一个奇怪的现象Q某证明犯罪事实的发生,却很难证明民事事实的发生Q仅是因为其作伪证的代h不同Q审判者即惛_然地他在民事诉g的证a排除在可信证据之外?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">昄Q问题出在刑法关于伪证罪的规定上Q它伪证罪局限于“在刑事诉讼中”,而将民事、行政诉g的伪证行为排除在外,而这U排除确实是荒谬luQ因为所有的诉讼都是Z实现实体法的价|都是Zl护国家法律的尊严,在Q何诉g作伪证,都是蔑视法律Q危害了司法公正Q都应该受到严惩。而我们竟然放U|事诉g的伪证行为,l民事司法审判带来不的困难Q刑法中规定的“帮助毁灭、伪造证据罪”要求情节严重,因此Q该法条q不惩罚一般的伪证行ؓQ。当Ӟ管有这L法律上的原因存在Q却q不能免除我们在民事诉讼中轻视证a的责仅R因为在民诉法中Q证a仍是法定证据之一Q因此我们仍然应该审慎地对待Q因为ƈ没有哪一条法律规定要怀疑证人的可信Q对于证词的真实性,应通过双方的质证来认Q而绝不应由审理者凭主观臆断而肆意否认?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">上述轻视证h的现实,无需举例来论证,只要看看我们的庭审,再与q法系国家的庭审比较一下,再清楚不过了。那U通过对证人的_ֽ的盘诘,而确定案件真伪的场景Q在我国几乎是罕见的Q而我们的法官甚至也不必重视庭审,g只要多翻阅案P闭门冥思苦惻I可以确定事实之真伪。而在q冥思苦想中Q更多地是主观臆断,完全忘记了民事诉g的当事hM?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">如果说对证h证言的效力还只是轻视的话Q对当事Z已有利的陈述Q则几乎完全否认其证据资|也无需去L别该陈述的真实性。事实上Q很多民事纠UP当事人陈q是唯一的直接证据,而基于对主观性证据不信Q的基Q将q一c证据排除在有效证据之外Q给民事诉讼的证明带来的困难是可惌知的?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">CD典型案例之一“某q场户外h冲破肛门致hw损完偿一案”(以下U“水冲案”)q行剖析说明。某男青q甲在申奥成功之夜,在该q场参与大狂Ƣ,因h多,随h进入喷泉池Q喷泉管理者乙单位未经完全清退h中的思hQ突然开启喷泉。因无思想准备Q甲的肛门及直肠被高压水柱冲_形成重伤?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">在该案的审理q程中,原告某甲提供了他受伤后乘坐的士的司机的证aQ证明其在喷泉附q上了RQ其车上染有血q;另提供有首次接诊ȝ的证词及住院病历Q均证明某甲p时的原始陈述Q他很明地告诉ȝQ其受伤p被告管理的h水柱冲击所致。相反,被告某乙没有提供M证据。该案审理的焦点集中在原告诉U的事实是否成立上,l一、二审审理判冻I均认为原告的证据不Q指控的事实不能成立而驳回诉D求。在庭审q程中,辨方律师的主要理由就是原告方~Z直接证据Q间接证据尚未Ş成证据链Q控方律师对此也未力争,而法官采信了辨方律师的意见?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">昄Q在该案中,控、L、审三方均将当事人陈q排除在合法证据之外Q以至于均认案缺乏直接证据。殊不知Q某甲的陈述正是重要的和唯一的直接证据,与其它间接证据环环相扣,已Ş成完整的证据链?/span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-size: 19px;">    </span><span style="font-size: 19px; font-family: 宋体;">不要误解为所有当事h于已有利的陈q均是可以采信的Q因为利益之q求Q当事h有作出虚假陈述的动机,但我们绝不应该因U动机的存在׃加分析和辨别地彻底否认它的证据?/span></span></p><p><br/></p></span> <div class="pages"> </div> <div id="Declare"><strong>声明Q?/strong><br /> 本文由入L律网作者上传ƈ发布Q捷律网仅提供发布^台。文章仅代表作者个点,不代表本站立场。未l作者许可,不得转蝲?/div> <div class="bdsharebuttonbox"><a href="#" class="bds_more" data-cmd="more"></a><a href="#" class="bds_qzone" data-cmd="qzone" title="分n到QQI间"></a><a href="#" class="bds_tsina" data-cmd="tsina" title="分n到新微?></a><a href="#" class="bds_tqq" data-cmd="tqq" title="分n到腾讯微?></a><a href="#" class="bds_renren" data-cmd="renren" title="分nCh人网"></a><a href="#" class="bds_weixin" data-cmd="weixin" title="分n到微?></a></div> <script> window._bd_share_config = { "common": { "bdSnsKey": {}, "bdText": "", "bdMini": "2", "bdMiniList": false, "bdPic": "", "bdStyle": "0", "bdSize": "24" }, "share": {}, "image": { "viewList": ["qzone", "tsina", "tqq", "renren", "weixin"], "viewText": "分n刎ͼ", "viewSize": "16" }, "selectShare": { "bdContainerClass": null, "bdSelectMiniList": ["qzone", "tsina", "tqq", "renren", "weixin"]} }; 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